Available updated figures of SFS generated across Europe, as well as amounts reported to be landfilled and valorised have been gathered. Data about aggregates demand in construction applications have been also collected. The sources used in the study have been annual statistics from European industry associations about sand consumption data in foundry and construction sector, metal casting production statistics, search results in databases of European and national PRTRs and European waste statistics (Eurostat, EAA, Environmental Dept. of Spanish and Basque Governments) by economic activity and waste category, reports and surveys evaluating sand demand and waste in casting processes, interviews to industry associations and environmental agencies and contacts with DG-Environment.
Given the lack of specific entries in Eurostat and E-PRTR databases and the variability of the foundry sand waste estimates at European level from the various sources consulted, ranging from 18 Mt to 4 Mt (and referred to varying geographical scopes), new estimations have been carried out, following two computation procedures. The waste estimates obtained by those calculation methods for SFS from ferrous casting activities in the CAEF area have been in the range 3.5-4.5 Mt and 4.5-9 Mt, respectively.
Also, an analysis of existing regulations, protocols and initiatives focused on SFS valorisation at MS (EU) and local level, as well as outside the EU have been carried out. Prospects and trends, and drivers and barriers have been assessed.